C pure virtual class

An abstract class is a class in C++ which have at least one pure virtual function. Abstract class can have normal functions and variables along with a pure virtual function. Abstract class cannot be instantiated, but pointers and references of Abstract class type can be created Output: fun() called. Some Interesting Facts: 1) A class is abstract if it has at least one pure virtual function. In the following example, Test is an abstract class because it has a pure virtual function show() C++ Pure Virtual Functions. Pure virtual functions are used. if a function doesn't have any use in the base class; but the function must be implemented by all its derived classes; Let's take an example, Suppose, we have derived Triangle, Square and Circle classes from the Shape class, and we want to calculate the area of all these shapes A pure virtual function (pure virtual) is a method in a base class, just a declaration, not a definition, is a generalization concept (general concept); is to put the corresponding virtual function, the end of the Add = 0, the virtual function. Home > Developer > C++. Pure virtual Functions in C + + (pure.

Pure Virtual Functions and Abstract Classes in C+

  1. Content originally posted in LPCWare by franku on Sun Aug 19 11:41:17 MST 2012 Hi out there, I hope someone can give me a hint on a problem building a c++ static library using newlib and lpcxpresso. Everything works fine, bit I have a size-problem. I have got a class that has pure virtual methods...
  2. Pure virtual destructors are legal in standard C++ and one of the most important things to remember is that if a class contains a pure virtual destructor, it must provide a function body for the pure virtual destructor. You may be wondering why a pure virtual function requires a function body
  3. An abstract class is a class that either defines or inherits at least one function for which the final overrider is pure virtual. [] ExplanatioAbstract classes are used to represent general concepts (for example, Shape, Animal), which can be used as base classes for concrete classes (for example, Circle, Dog)
  4. utes to read +9; In this article. The virtual keyword is used to modify a method, property, indexer, or event declaration and allow for it to be overridden in a derived class. For example, this method can be overridden by any class that inherits it
  5. Sometimes we use the phrase pure abstract class, meaning a class that exclusively has pure virtual functions (and no data). The concept of interface is mapped to pure abstract classes in C++, as there is no interface construct in C++ the same way that there is in Java
  6. Third, if a class inherits one or more classes that have virtual parents, the most derived class is responsible for constructing the virtual base class. In this case, Copier inherits Printer and Scanner, both of which have a PoweredDevice virtual base class. Copier, the most derived class, is responsible for creation of PoweredDevice

Thus, the virtual functions in the abstract base class can be made pure as: virtual void Enter_data( ) = 0 ; virtual void Area( ) = 0; A class with one or more pure virtual function is an abstract, and no object of that abstract class can be created. An abstract class can be used only as an interface and as a base for other classes Abstract Class in C++. Abstract class is a class that contains at least one pure virtual function.. An abstract class cannot be instantiated i.e. its object cannot be created. Hence to make use of abstract class we need to inherit it into some other class virtual means that the function can be overridden. pure means that there is no default implementation. Using the good old animal class hierarchy, imagine that you have a bunch of different kinds of animals that inherit from a common animal cla.. A virtual function will become pure virtual function when you append =0 at the end of declaration of virtual function. Pure virtual function doesn't have body or implementation. We must implement all pure virtual functions in derived class. Pure virtual function is also known as abstract function. A class with at least one pure virtual.

(2) Pure virtual function provides a common interface for each derived class (encapsulation and design of interface, module function division of software) (3) Description form of pure virtual function: virtual type function name (parameter table) = 0; (4) A base class with pure virtual function is called abstract class The reason of introducing. Virtual methods and Abstract Class in C# - Tutorial to learn Virtual methods and Abstract Class in C# in simple, easy and step by step way with syntax, examples and notes. Covers topics like Virtual methods and Abstract Class, Abstract class and abstract method, etc

C ++ Tutorial Videos | Mr. Kishore ** For Online Training Registration: https://goo.gl/r6kJbB Call: +91-8179191999 Also Watch C Language Tutorials: https.. Pure Virtual Methods. A virtual method inside an abstract class can be declared with the keyword pure and is called a pure virtual method. Such methods only require a prototype to be specified within the abstract class and the implementation is left to defined within the sub-classes. Pure Method Exampl A virtual function is a member function in the base class that we expect to redefine in derived classes. Basically, a virtual function is used in the base class in order to ensure that the function is overridden.This especially applies to cases where a pointer of base class points to an object of a derived class Use of Pure Virtual Function with a function body. Sometimes if you want to call base class function which is having the common functionality to be called in derived classes then instead of rewriting same logic multiple times we can write common logic in pure virtual function's body I have class A that has a pointer to an instance of the pure virtual class B.Class C is derived from B and will automatically have a pointer to A (which is its parent), and needs to access its members. This can be achieved by adding friend class C inside class A, though then this is needed for every class that will derive from B.. Code example: class A { public: friend class B; // This does.

In this tutorial, we will be discussing a program to understand virtual functions in C++.Virtual function is the member function defined in the base class and c. Non-virtual members can also be redefined in derived classes, but non-virtual members of derived classes cannot be accessed through a reference of the base class: i.e., if virtual is removed from the declaration of area in the example above, all three calls to area would return zero, because in all cases, the version of the base class would have been called instead Signifying abstract types. Abstract classes can be created, signified, or simulated in several ways: By use of the explicit keyword abstract in the class definition, as in Java, D or C#.; By including, in the class definition, one or more abstract methods (called pure virtual functions in C++), which the class is declared to accept as part of its protocol, but for which no implementation is.

Pure Virtual Functions and Abstract Classes in C++

:定义pure virtual function的class不可实例化(例如你把Base.VirtualFunc改为pure的,那么Base就不能生成objects了,哪怕你为VirtualFunc提供了实现也不行,因为编译器禁止为pure virtual function提供实现);而通过继承而得到pure virtual function的class在override(重写,也就是提供该pure virtual function的implementation)该pure. Answer: Pure virtual function in C++ object oriented programming is a virtual function with the expression = 0 appended to the function declaration. E.g. virtual void func() = 0; We can write pure virtual functions in a class as below. Pure virtual function should not have implementation in the class itself and all pure virtual functions. This ensures that a class inheriting from a virtual base class can be sure the virtual base class is safe to use inside the inheriting class's constructor. The destructor order in a class hierarchy with a virtual base class follows the same rules as the rest of C++: the destructors run in the opposite order of the constructors il_mix wrote: class InterfaceTest { public: virtual int SendValue() = 0; virtual int SumValues(int a, int b, int c, int d) = 0;}; extern C { DECLDIR InterfaceTest* STDCALL NewTestClass();} [/code]. I suspect you need to mark each individual interface method __stdcall, not just the factory function. Based on your description (parameters to SumValues arrive in the wrong order), it's very.

C++ Abstract Class and Pure Virtual Functio

The base class implements the pure virtual method. The derived class overrides this with its own method. However, that pure virtual method is still a function and it is a base class function and your are in the derived class so you can call the base class function from your derived class. Take my Post #3 and add this main() What are pure virtual functions? - A pure virtual function is a function which has no definition in the base class. Its definition lies only in the derived class i.e it is compulsory for the derived class to provide definition of a pure virtual function. Since there is no definition in the base class, these functions can be equated to zero

Pure Virtual Class is a class which has a pure virtual function as its member. (Abstract class is the precise term for such a class). Pure Virtual function is a function in the base class which has no definition hence all the classes that inherit. How do you use C++ Interfaces (pure virtual class) in QML. This topic has been deleted. Only users with topic management privileges can see it. Buttink last edited by . I am trying to make an interface that a QObject implements and assign that to a property Pure virtual functions can be defined for abstract classes, but they can be called directly only by using the syntax: abstract-class-name::function-name() This helps when designing class hierarchies whose base class(es) include pure virtual destructors, because base class destructors are always called in the process of destroying an object A 0 indicates that this is a pure virtual function! A pure virtual function implicitly makes the class it is defined for abstract (unlike in Java where you have a keyword to explicitly declare the class abstract). Abstract classes cannot be instantiated. Derived classes need to override/implement all inherited pure virtual functions

I am a fairly experienced C++ programmer, but this has me stumped. I am trying to make a generic class for button debouncing, and then derive from that a class specific to an analog touch sensor I made. But when my base class DebouncedButton tries to call a pure virtual method isButtonPressed(), the compiler barks at me like an angry German. In Inheritance relationship a class is derived from another class. It is a is a relationship between two classes. Representation Here X and Y are normal classes. Here Shape is an abstract class that is why it is shown in Italics. Draw and Erase methods of Shape class is pure virtual function, so it is also shown as italics. Class Templat Pure virtual (abstract) functions and abstract base classes. So far, all of the virtual functions we have written have a body (a definition). However, C++ allows you to create a special kind of virtual function called a pure virtual function (or abstract function) that has no body at all!A pure virtual function simply acts as a placeholder that is meant to be redefined by derived classes c.g(d); return 0;} This results in linking errors, which result from vector being unable to create a copy of the pure virtual class. Can anyone suggest how I should solve this? My first attempted was to make the function in Base virtual, rather than pure virtual (i.e. virtual void f() {}). This then compiles

C++ abstract class and pure virtual function : Introduction. C++ abstract class is a class designed for the role of the base class having at least one pure virtual function. A class without a pure virtual function cannot be termed as an abstract base class in C++. Abstract classes are used as a framework upon which new subclasses are derived The pure virtual function has no definition in the base class, and all the inheriting derived classes has to redefine it. However, the virtual function is also called as dynamic dispatch and run-time dispatch, due to the function called is specified in the run time in accordance with the type of the object used A pure virtual function is declared, but not necessarily defined, by a base class. A class with a pure virtual function is abstract (as opposed to concrete), in that it's not possible to create instances of that class. A derived class must define all inherited pure virtual functions of its base classes to be concrete The idea behind this approach is very simple. A member-less C++ class that consisting of pure virtual methods only is nothing more than a virtual table, i.e., an array of function pointers. This array of function pointers is filled within a DLL with whatever an author deems necessary to fill This is pure speculation, but maybe this can apply to C++ too: if a class is final and all of its methods are const, then its interface says that no objects of this class can be modified. Without final, you could have a derived class that adds new member functions that modify the object

Pure virtual Functions in C + + (pure virtual) and

Code Explanation: Here Sample_Class is the base class and Derived_Class is derived from the Sample_Class. A pure virtual function called sample_func() is declared in the base class. It is assigned to 0, which means it has nobody and nothing is implemented inside the function Q) In a class, pure virtual functions in C++ is used. To create an interface; To make a class abstract; To force derived class to implement the pure virtual functio Pure Virtual Function and Abstract Class In above example, base class Shape member function area do not need any implementation because it is overriding in derived class. If this is the case, the C++ language permits the programmer to declare the function a pure virtual function An abstract class is a class that is designed to be specifically used as a base class. An abstract class contains at least one pure virtual function.You declare a pure virtual function by using a pure specifier (= 0) in the declaration of a virtual member function in the class declaration

Write a C++ program Illustrates virtual base classes. Write a C++ Program of Virtual Function ; Write C++ Program Illustrates Passing Structure To A Function. Write A C++ Program To Overload Member Function Of A Class. Write a C++ Illustrates multiple objects for a class At the programming language level, an ABC is a class that has one or more pure virtual member functions. You cannot make an object (instance) of an ABC. What is a pure virtual member function? A member function declaration that turns a normal class into an abstract class (i.e., an ABC). You normally only implement it in a derived class

C++ pure virtual class with newlib - NXP Communit

Pure virtual destructor in C++ - GeeksforGeek

  1. es the type of object at runtime and then it binds the function call
  2. Interestingly, virtual destructors can be declared pure, which can be useful in some cases. Imagine you have a base class you want to make abstract. In this base class all methods have meaningful default implementations, and you want to allow the derived classes to inherit them as-is
  3. Pure Virtual Destructors in C++. Pure Virtual Destructors are legal in C++. Also, pure virtual Destructors must be defined, which is against the pure virtual behaviour. The only difference between Virtual and Pure Virtual Destructor is, that pure virtual destructor will make its Base class Abstract, hence you cannot create object of that class
  4. Use virtual function to calculate area for different shapes : virtual function « Class « C++ Tutoria
  5. Class A has a public virtual method called Test. Class B, meanwhile, derives from class A and it provides a public override method called Test as well. Tip: The virtual modifier tells the compiler that when any class derived from class A is used, an override method should be called
  6. Therefore, every class method must have an implementation, even if it does nothing. That being said, you can get similar behavior by decorating your inline method implementations with the PURE_VIRTUAL macro. This will tell the UObject sub-system that your intent is to declare a pure virtual method
  7. the vf() becomes a pure virtual function. Suddenly, the Base class becomes an abstract class. Its pure virtual function, vf() marks it as such. As a result, clients cannot create instances of the Base class, only of classes derived from it. Putting a pure virtual function in our class tells other programmers two things about the class

abstract class - cppreference

A virtual method is one that is declared as virtual in the base class. A method is declared as virtual by specifying the keyword virtual in the method signature. A virtual method may or may not. Virtual functions with no body are called Pure Virtual functions. In Java and C#, Abstract methods are in fact Pure Virtual. Difference between Virtual and Abstract. Although Abstract and Virtual are two keywords/concepts that provide a meaning of incomplete implementation to its associated entities, they do have their differences

Pure Virtual Function. A virtual function is not used for performing any task. It only serves as a placeholder. When the function has no definition, such function is known as do-nothing function.The do-nothing function is known as a pure virtual function.A pure virtual function is a function declared in the base class that has no definition relative to the base class A derived class has only a default constructor. It invokes the Animal class's one parameter constructor. The derived classes define the base class's pure virtual methods. The methods should not contain any input or output statements. The following table shows the values that the derived class methods return

We create a virtual method in the base class using the virtual keyword and that method is overriden in the derived class using the override keyword. When a method is declared as a virtual method in a base class then that method can be defined in a base class and it is optional for the derived class to override that method C++ corner case: You can implement pure virtual functions in the base class. Raymond. October 11th, 2013. In our discussion __purecall, we saw that you can declare a pure virtual function with the = 0 syntax, and if you try to call one of these functions from the base class, you will get the dreaded R6025. In this case Shape's area() member function would necessarily have to be virtual (probably pure virtual) but Shape::print() could, if we were guaranteed no derived class wanted a different algorithm for printing, be a non-virtual defined in the base class Shape

virtual - C# Reference Microsoft Doc

Pure Virtual Function Called. The Thread class has a virtual Run method which is overrided by a derived class in order to do work in a separate thread. In standard ConstructionIsAcquisition form, the Thread destructor waits for the running thread to exit MizukiSonoko / pure_virtual_class.cpp. Created Nov 17, 2016. Star 0 Fork 0; Code Revisions 1. Embed. What would you like to do? Embed Embed this gist in your website. Share Copy sharable link for this gist. Clone via.

a virtual function would be declared in a baseclass. in the derived class (or struct) you would only be able to override existing virtual functions of the baseclass or declare new virtual functions that could be overridden by classes that were derived from your class. if a baseclass does not implement a virtual function but adds '= 0' at end of declaration, the virtual function is called a. Difference between a Virtual class and an Abstract class in C++. Virtual Class: A virtual class is one that has been qualified as virtual in the inheritance definition. When a derived class inherits from more than one base class, then it can inherits the members of a base class from multiple inheritance paths class A { public: virtual void fun_1() = 0; }; Now coming to an abstract class, it is a kind of class that has at least one pure virtual function is known as abstract class.In other words, if we only declare the function in the base class and doesn't write its implementation in the base class and we use derived classes for writing an implementation of the declared function, then that class. An interface is similar to a pure virtual class in C++; it defines the methods (and the arguments to the methods) that will be available in a class that implements it; however, it doesn't actually implement any of the methods #include <iostream> #include <cstring> using namespace std; class Shape { double width; double height; char name[20]; public: Shape() { width = height = 0.0; strcpy.

C++ Programming/Classes/Abstract Classes - Wikibooks, open

  1. Making it pure virtual inhibits instantiation. But you must define it too, because otherwise derived classes can't instantiate it either (because they'll try to call the non-existant base-class.
  2. C++ has virtual functions so a developer can describe a kind of behavior (by defining the virtual function) in the base class, and then provide several instances of the behavior (by implementing the virtual function) in each of several derived classes
  3. This pure virtual function area() makes CPolygon an abstract base class. But you have to remember the following: by adding a pure virtual member to the base class, you are forced to also add the member to any derived class. So our example should now look like this
  4. The class is registered to qml via: qmlRegisterUncreatableType<InputDeviceConfiguratorGate>( InputDeviceConfiguratorGate, 1, 0, InputDeviceConfiguratorGate, Not creatable in Qml. I tried a lot of different combinations: putting the enum in a separate class, using Q_ENUM, Q_ENUMS (i know, deprecated), introduce Q_PROPERTY and remove Q_INVOKABLE and make the function not pure virtual
  5. class B2:public virtual A; class D:public B1,public B2; 虚拟继承在一般的应用中很少用到,所以也往往被忽视,这也主要是因为在C++中,多重继承是不推荐的,也并不常用,而一旦离开了多重继承,虚拟继承就完全失去了存在的必要因为这样只会降低效率和占用更多的空间
Session 12 | C++ | Class (Computer Programming)Volkswagen Tarok - Wikipedia

12.7 — Virtual base classes Learn C+

A virtual destructor is not overridden when redefined in a derived class, the definitions to each destructor are cumulative and they start from the last derivate class toward the first base class. Pure virtual Destructor . Every abstract class should contain the declaration of a pure virtual destructor class Base { public: void f1(); // not virtual virtual void f2(); // virtual, not pure virtual void f3() = 0; // pure virtual }; Base b; // error: pure virtual f3 not overridden Here, Base is an abstract class (because it has a pure virtual function), so no objects of class Base can be directly created: Base is (explicitly) meant to be a base class If a class includes a virtual function and if it gets inherited, the virtual class redefines a virtual function to go with its own need. In other words, a virtual function is a function which gets override in the derived class and instructs the C++ compiler for executing late binding on that function Here sound() is a pure virtual area. Abstract Class. An abstract class is a class whose instances (objects) can't be made. We can only make objects of its subclass (if they are not abstract). Abstract class is also known as abstract base class.. An abstract class has at least one abstract function (pure virtual function) In C++, we use terms abstract class and interface interchangeably.A class with pure virtual function is known as abstract class. For example the following function is a pure virtual function: virtual void fun() = 0; A pure virtual function is marked with a virtual keyword and has = 0 after its signature. You can call this function an abstract function as it has no body

C++ Program to illustrate the use of Pure virtual function

  1. The macro PYBIND11_OVERRIDE_PURE should be used for pure virtual functions, and PYBIND11_OVERRIDE should be used for functions which have a default implementation. There are also two alternate macros PYBIND11_OVERRIDE_PURE_NAME and PYBIND11_OVERRIDE_NAME which take a string-valued name argument between the Parent class and Name of the function slots, which defines the name of function in Python
  2. To this end, an interface class is a class used to hoist the polymorphic interface - i.e. pure virtual function declarations - into a base class. The programmer using a class hierarchy can then do so via a base class that communicates only the interface of classes in the hierarchy
  3. pure virtual Load a calibration cache. Calibration is potentially expensive, so it can be useful to generate the calibration data once, then use it on subsequent builds of the network

Pure Virtual Function and Abstract Class in C+

a class derived in Python from a pure virtual class in C++ created. However, i am not able to call any of the pure virtual methods. One of the base classes from the intermediate wrapper class is the boost::python::wrapper class, but it's own internal object never gets set (and i don't think there is a way to manually set it since it is a privat Abstract Class in C++: जैसाकि हमने पहले भी कहा है कि Abstract Class एक ऐसी Class होती है जिसके Instance या Objects Create नहीं किए जा सकते हैं, बल्कि ये Classes एक Template के रूप में अन्‍य Derived Classes Create करने के. In this guide, we will see what are virtual functions and why we use them. When we declare a function as virtual in a class, all the sub classes that override this function have their function implementation as virtual by default (whether they mark them virtual or not). Why we declare a function virtual Well I guess we have different nomenclature, I consider a function as pure virtual (or abstract, as a remnant of my Delphi days) only if there is: 1) = 0; at the declaration and 2) no implementation anywhere (if you put it next to the derived class definition or anywhere else doesn't make a difference to me, it is no longer a pure virtual method or destructor) Currently, c++ virtual functions in class diagrams don't have any visual indicator differentiating them from other functions. Normally, UML indicates virtual functions via italics. I would highly recommend showing virtual functions in class diagrams with italics as well. Thanks

What is the use of a pure virtual function in C++? - Quor

[C++-sig] Returning pointer to abstract class from pure virtual class method; Roman Hwang. Oct 12, 2009 at 6:59 am: Hello. I'm new to Python, but really want to use it with my C++ code. I faced a problem while returning pointer to abstract class from pure virtual class method Pure virtual functions can also be overloaded in the abstract class body, like the code lines 25 - 27. Pure virtual functions can also be overloaded by regular virtual functions or non-virtual functions, examples not shown in the given code. Pure virtual functions need to be implemented in derived classes for instantiation

Pure Virtual Function in C++ with Exampl

  1. Because an abstract class is not complete, you cannot (yet) use it. If you want to use it, you must derive a class from it. If you decide to derive a class from an abstract one, you must implement every one of its pure virtual methods in the new class
  2. Eine virtuelle Methode ist in der objektorientierten Programmierung eine Methode einer Klasse, deren Einsprungadresse erst zur Laufzeit ermittelt wird.Dieses sogenannte dynamische Binden ermöglicht es, Klassen von einer Oberklasse abzuleiten und dabei Funktionen zu überschreiben bzw. zu überladen.Das Konzept der virtuellen Methoden wird von einem Compiler (Übersetzer) zum Beispiel mittels.
  3. In Inheritance, we saw that methods invoked by a base class handle which points to a child class instance would eventually end up executing the base class method instead of the one in child class.If that function in the base class was declared as virtual, only then the child class method will be executed.. bc = sc; // Base class handle is pointed to a sub class bc.display (); // This calls the.
  4. A class that contains at least one pure virtual function is considered an abstract class. Classes derived from the abstract class must implement the pure virtual function or they, too, are abstract classes. A pure Abstract class has only abstract member functions and no data or concrete member functions

C + + pure virtual functions and abstract classes (self

b) Derive a class from the base class and implement the pure virtual methods and use that instead. c) Change to using an array of pointers to the abstract class, and then create instances of the correct non-abstract class as required Simplify with high-capacity storage. Pure Storage FlashArray//C lets you consolidate workloads and simplify storage with consistent, all-flash performance with a lower TCO than hybrid storage

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Virtual methods and Abstract Class in C

We can call the virtual function by referring to the object of the derived class using the reference or pointer of the base class. Every non-static method in Java is by default a virtual method. Java does not have a virtual keyword like C++ , but we can define them and use them for concepts like run-time polymorphism Simple Example Program for virtual functions. Simple Program for Virtual Functions Algorithm/Steps: Step 1: Start the program. Step 2: Declare the base class base. Step 3: Declare and define the virtual function show(). Step 4: Declare and define the function display(). Step 5: Create the derived class from the base class Write an abstract class called Shape. It should have pure virtual methods area and perimeter. Write a class called Circle that inherits from Shape. It should have a double field for it's radius. It should have a set method for the radius. It should have a constructor that takes a double parameter and passes it to the set method From Marshall Cline: Bjarne Stroustrup, Herb Sutter, Andrei Alexandrescu, Pearson / Addison-Wesley Publishers and I collaborated to create a new C++ Super-FAQ!It's a team effort, with huge contributions from each of us and with amazing support from dozens of brilliant editors The class implements the modified H. Hirschmuller algorithm that differs from the original one as follows: By default, the algorithm is single-pass, which means that you consider only 5 directions instead of 8. pure virtual setUniquenessRatio() virtual void cv::.

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純粋仮想関数 (pure virtual function) は、仮想関数の一種です。 純粋仮想関数は、実装がなく、プロトタイプが宣言されているだけの関数です。. 仮想関数のプロトタイプに 0 を代入します。virtual void f() = 0; とすると実装が不要になります。 実装を持たない仮想関数 を 純粋仮想関数 と呼びます B) virtual function C) pure virtual function D) pure function. 13. State whether the following statements about virtual functions are True or False. i) A virtual function, equated to zero is called pure virtual function. ii) A class containing pure virtual function is called an abstract class A) True, True B) True, False C) False, True D) False. Abstract class is nothing but the pure virtual method equivalent to C++ in Java. Question : why we say that static method is not a virtual method in Java? Answer : static method is bound to the class itself, so calling the static method from class name or object does not provide the polymorphic behavior to the static method 在〈虛擬函式〉中,將 to_string 設成 virtual 了,然而你可能會發現,Role 的子類別都有 fight 方法,為什麼不將它們提昇至父類別並設為 virtual? 可以是可以,不過提昇之後,在 Role 中的方法該寫什麼呢? 空的方法本體?如果是這樣的話,不如將它設為純虛擬函式(pure virtual function),也就是沒有任何.

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